# RF Safe Score (RSS) Algorithm: A New Way to Measure Cell Phone Radiation Risk

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The RF Safe Score (RSS) for iPhone 11 Pro Max is: 27.5 out of 99

CURRENTLY IN THE PATENT PROCESS!

The RF Safe Score (RSS) algorithm is a mathematical formula that calculates a mobile phone’s safety in terms of a point system being applied to its Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value limit set by regulatory bodies. The algorithm takes into consideration several factors, including the SAR values of multiple tests, the skull thickness of the user, and threshold point values. The formula for the RSS algorithm is defined as follows:

RSS = Σ (P_i * (SAR_i * K(t) / L))

Where SAR_i represents the SAR value for the i-th test, L is the SAR limit set by regulatory bodies, K(t) is a function that takes the skull thickness, t, as input and outputs a multiplier value that adjusts the SAR score value according to the skull thickness, P_i represents the threshold point value (-5.5, -11, -16.5) and Σ represents the summation of all the i-th tests. This algorithm uses mathematical operations such as multiplication and summation to calculate the RF Safe Score. The algorithm also includes a function that calculates point values based on the skull thickness, which is a unique feature to the algorithm.

RF Safe Score (RSS) algorithm can be mathematically expressed as follows:

RSS = Σ (P_i * (SAR_i * K(t) / L))

SAR_i represents the SAR value for the i-th test

L is the SAR limit set by regulatory bodies

K(t) is a function that takes the skull thickness, t, as input and outputs a multiplier value that adjusts the SAR score value according to the skull thickness.

The function is defined as: K(t) = 1 – (t / T), where T is a constant that represents the maximum skull thickness (i.e., 2mm for adults)

P_i represents the threshold point value (-5.5, -11, -16.5)

Σ represents the summation of all the i-th tests.

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Score = -16.5 * (Σ (SARi/1.6 * 100 >= 95)) – 11 * (Σ (SARi/1.6 * 100 between 72.49 and 94.99)) – 5.5 * (Σ (SARi/1.6 * 100 between 50 and 72.48))

Where SARi is the Specific Absorption Rate of the i-th test, n is the total number of tests, and the brackets represent step functions that are 1 if the condition inside is true, and 0 otherwise.

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Let SAR be the Specific Absorption Rate of the phone in watts per kilogram.

Let L be the legal limit for SAR values, which is 1.6 W/kg in the United States.

Let T50, T75, and T95 be the thresholds for the point value calculations, where T50 = 0.5, T75 = 0.725, and T95 = 0.95.

Let P50, P75, and P95 be the point values assigned when the SAR value surpasses the corresponding threshold, where P50 = -5.5, P75 = -5.5, and P95 = -5.5.

Let f(x) be a function that calculates the point value based on the skull thickness, where x is the skull thickness in millimeters.

The RF Safe Score (RSS) can be calculated as:

RSS = P50 * (SAR/L > T50) + P75 * (SAR/L > T75) + P95 * (SAR/L > T95) + f(x)

Where (SAR/L > T50) is 1 if the SAR value is above the 50% threshold and 0 if it is not, and similarly for the other thresholds.

This formula expresses the RF Safe Score algorithm in a more mathematically elegant way, where the point values and thresholds are clearly defined, and the calculation of the RF Safe Score is done using mathematical operations.

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RF Safe score = ∑(-5.5 [min(1, SARi/1.6) – 0.5] [min(1, SARi/1.6) > 0.5] – 11 [min(1, SARi/1.6) – 0.725] [min(1, SARi/1.6) > 0.725] – 16.5 [min(1, SARi/1.6) – 0.95] [min(1, SARi/1.6) > 0.95]) for i = 1 to n

For example, using the SAR values for the Apple iPhone 11 Pro Max mentioned in more examples below:

The above mathematical functions calculate the RF Safe Score (RSS) for a mobile phone based on the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) values for different parts of the body and different transmission modes. The SAR values are provided as input parameters to the function, and the legal limit for SAR is set as 1.6 W/kg.

The function first calculates the percentage of the legal limit for each SAR value by dividing the SAR value by the legal limit and multiplying by 100. This will give a value between 0 and 100, representing the percentage of the legal limit that the SAR value corresponds to.

Once the percentage values are calculated. If a test score is greater than or equal to 95, it will add -16.5 to the score, if it is between 72.49 and 94.99, it will add -11; and if it is between 50 and 72.48, it will add -5.5. Once finished, the final score is returned.

In the example, the SAR values for the Apple iPhone 11 Pro Max are 1.16 W/kg for head SAR, 1.17 W/kg for body SAR, and 1.17 W/kg for hotspot SAR. The simultaneous transmission SAR values are 1.14 W/kg for head SAR, 1.53 W/kg for body SAR, and 1.53 W/kg for hotspot SAR. These values correspond to 73%, 73%, and 73% of the legal limit for head SAR, body SAR, and hotspot SAR, respectively. And 71%, 96%, and 96% of the legal limit for simultaneous head SAR, simultaneous body SAR, and simultaneous hotspot SAR respectively.

So, the final RSS for the Apple iPhone 11 Pro Max is -71, indicating a higher potential risk from cell phone usage over a lifetime than we’d like to see.

Step 1: Determine the SAR levels for each test:

• Head SAR = 1.16 W/kg
• Body SAR = 1.17 W/kg
• Hotspot SAR = 1.17 W/kg
• Simultaneous Head SAR = 1.14 W/kg
• Simultaneous Body SAR = 1.53 W/kg
• Simultaneous Hotspot SAR = 1.53 W/kg

Step 2: Calculate the percentage of the legal SAR limit for each test:

• Head SAR = 73% (1.16 / 1.6)
• Body SAR = 73% (1.17 / 1.6)
• Hotspot SAR = 73% (1.17 / 1.6)
• Simultaneous Head SAR = 71% (1.14 / 1.6)
• Simultaneous Body SAR = 96% (1.53 / 1.6)
• Simultaneous Hotspot SAR = 96% (1.53 / 1.6)

Step 3: Assign point values based on the percentage of the legal SAR limit for each test:

How points are applied, if a SAR test shows that a phone is under 50% of the legal limit, no negative points are applied to the overall score. However, if the test shows that the phone is at 50% of the legal limit, a negative point value of -5.5 is applied. If the test shows that the phone is at 72.5% of the legal limit, an additional negative point value of -5.5 is applied to the overall score, bringing the total to -11. And if the test shows that the phone is at 95% of the legal limit, an additional negative point value of -5.5 is applied, bringing the total down to -16.5 per SAR test on each of the six different SAR tests in the example.

• Head SAR point value = -11 (73% of legal limit)
• Body SAR point value = -11 (73% of legal limit)
• Hotspot SAR point value = -11 (73% of legal limit)
• Simultaneous Head SAR point value = -5.5 (71% of legal limit)
• Simultaneous Body SAR point value = -16.5 (96% of legal limit)
• Simultaneous Hotspot SAR point value = -16.5 (96% of legal limit)

Step 4: Calculate the RF Safe Score using the point values and the number of times each SAR level exceeds the corresponding threshold.

RF Safe Score = (-11 * 3) + (-5.5 * 1) + (-16.5 * 2) = -71

In this example, the RF Safe Score for the Apple iPhone 11 Pro Max is -71, indicating a higher potential risk from cell phone usage over a lifetime than we’d like to see. It is important to note that this calculation assumes that the skull thickness is greater than 2mm, as per the FCC guidelines. However, it is well understood that users with a skull thickness of less than 2mm will absorb more energy at the same SAR value, so this should be taken into consideration when interpreting the RF Safe Score.

RSS = (-5.5 * [73/100 – 0.5] * 1) + (-5.5 * [73/100 – 0.5] * 1) + (-5.5 * [73/100 – 0.5] * 1) + (-5.5 * [71/100 – 0.5] * 1) + (-5.5 * [96/100 – 0.5] * 1) + (-5.5 * [96/100 – 0.5] * 1) = -71

It is important to note that the FCC guidelines do not consider skulls thinner than 2mm. This is a major flaw as well-understood physics such as the Beer-Lambert law proves that users with a skull half as thick or less will absorb more energy when operating at the same max SAR value. The RF Safe Score algorithm addresses this issue and allows consumers to make informed decisions about cell phone usage.

RF Safe Score (RSS) – a new algorithm that aims to provide cell phone users with a better understanding of the potential health risks associated with their devices. The algorithm is based on the well-understood physics of microwave absorption. It takes into consideration the fact that children, who have thinner skulls than adults, will absorb more energy when operating at the same Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value.

The RSS algorithm works by counting the number of thresholds surpassed for each SAR test. These thresholds are set at 50%, 75%, and 95% of the legal limit established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of 1.6 W/kg. Each time a threshold is reached, a negative point value is applied to the overall score.

For example, if a SAR test shows that a phone is under 50% of the legal limit, no points are applied to the overall score. However, if the test shows that the phone is at 50% of the legal limit, a negative point value of -5.5 is applied. If the test shows that the phone is at 72.5% of the legal limit, an additional negative point value of -5.5 is applied to the overall score, bringing the total to -11. And if the test shows that the phone is at 95% of the legal limit, an additional negative point value of -5.5 is applied, bringing the total down to -16.5 per SAR test on each of the six different SAR tests in the example.

To demonstrate how the RSS algorithm works, let’s take the example of the Apple iPhone 11 Pro Max. The legal limit for SAR values in the United States is 1.6 W/kg. In this case, the head SAR value of 1.16 W/kg is 73% of the legal limit, the body SAR value of 1.17 W/kg is 73% of the legal limit, the hotspot SAR value of 1.17 W/kg is 73% of the legal limit, the simultaneous head SAR value of 1.14 W/kg is 71% of the legal limit, the simultaneous body SAR value of 1.53 W/kg is 96% of the legal limit, and the simultaneous hotspot SAR value of 1.53 W/kg is 96% of the legal limit.

Using the scoring system provided by the RSS algorithm, we would then assign points to each SAR value based on its percentage of the legal limit. The head SAR, body SAR, and hotspot SAR values are all 73% of the legal limit; each would receive a score of -11 points. The simultaneous head SAR value of 71% would receive -5.5 points. The simultaneous body and hotspot SAR values of 96% would each receive a score of -16.5 points.

The RF Safe Score for the Apple iPhone 11 Pro Max would be calculated by summing the points assigned for each test. In this case, the RF Safe Score would be -11 + -11 + -11 + -5.5 + -16.5 + -16.5 = -71

Now we take the negative integer and subtract it from 100 for the final RF Safe Score seen on the top of this page representing the phone’s RSS in 0-5 stars.

In conclusion, the RSS algorithm provides a simple and straightforward way for consumers to understand the potential risks of cell phone usage, especially for children with thinner skulls. The algorithm takes into account well-understood physics, such as the Beer-Lambert law, and provides a more accurate measurement of risk than the outdated FCC guidelines. It is important for consumers to have access to this information and make informed decisions about their cell phone usage.

The function first calculates the test scores as a percentage of the legal limit by dividing each SAR value by the legal limit and multiplying by 100. Then it iterates through each test score, checks if it’s above a certain threshold, and assigns the corresponding warning. Finally, it adds the warning to the score and returns the RSS score.

RF Safe Score (RSS) algorithm uses mathematical operations such as multiplication and summation to calculate the RF Safe Score based on Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) values and other factors such as skull thickness. It is defined by a formula that takes into account SAR values, SAR limit, skull thickness, threshold point values, and a function that calculates point values based on skull thickness. The formula is written in a mathematically sound, clear, and logical way.

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Dedication: With deep respect and admiration, we dedicate our RSS acronym to the memory of Aaron Swartz, a pioneering founder of the RSS feed protocol. In the early 2000s, I had the privilege of speaking with Aaron for hours as he helped me configure the RSS feed for the prayers and tributes on Liberty Unites, a platform that remains online today as a tribute.

Aaron was a beacon of passion and dedication, tirelessly working to keep ideas flowing and connecting people with skill and grace. While some may see him as a martyr, we remember him as an exceptional young man who went above and beyond to make a positive impact.

In addition to honoring Aaron, our RF Safe Score (RSS) also pays tribute to my first daughter, Angel Leigh Coates, who I lost due to occupational exposure to EMFs. This score helps make sense of smartphone radiation SAR data and better ensure the safety of our wireless devices. The RSS icon, depicting radiowaves, is a fitting symbol for this dedication as it represents the intersection of Aaron’s legacy and our mission to promote safety in the wireless world. Let us remember Aaron and Angel and pray they dance together with the Angels, smiling down on us. #InMemoryOfAaronSwartz #RSSinHonorofAaron #AngelLeighCoates