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Understanding the Impact of EMF Exposure on Brain Development and Neurodegeneration

A Critical Review of Recent Findings 2024_final_report_FSM_Mevissen


In the rapidly advancing field of wireless communication, understanding the potential health impacts of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has become increasingly important. A recent paper titled “Brain in a Dish – Effects of RF-EMF (5G) on Brain Development and Neurodegeneration,” authored by Meike Mevissen, Angélique Ducray, and Myles Capstick, provides valuable insights into the effects of RF-EMF exposure, particularly from 5G technology, on brain development and neurodegeneration. This study, finalized in January 2024, fits into a broader context of EMF research and guidelines, highlighting significant findings and raising important questions about the implications for public health.

State of Current EMF Research and Guidelines

The research environment surrounding EMF exposure is marked by a growing body of evidence indicating potential biological effects beyond the established thermal mechanisms. The Swiss Research Foundation for Electricity and Mobile Communication (FSM) has been at the forefront of investigating these non-thermal effects, especially with the advent of 5G technology, which operates at higher frequencies and involves different modulation techniques compared to previous generations.

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and other regulatory bodies globally have historically focused on thermal effects in their safety guidelines, largely ignoring non-thermal mechanisms. This has resulted in outdated standards that may not adequately protect against the complex interactions of modern RF-EMF exposures.

Key Findings of the Study

The study conducted by Mevissen et al. explored the impact of 5G NR FR1 RF-EMF exposure on the development of midbrain and cerebral organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The key objectives included evaluating the impact on neuronal phenotype and markers, investigating signaling pathways involved in neurodegeneration, and analyzing electrical activity in brain organoids.

Major Observations:

  1. Neuronal Phenotype and Maturation:
    • No significant morphological differences were observed in midbrain or cerebral organoids exposed to RF-EMF compared to sham controls.
    • Some variations in protein levels, such as a significant increase in MAP2a+b proteins in RF-EMF-exposed midbrain organoids, suggest potential impacts on neuronal differentiation and maturity.
  2. Signaling Pathways:
    • The study identified changes in critical pathways such as PI3-K/Akt/mTOR and JAK-STAT, known to be involved in neurodegeneration and diseases like Parkinson’s.
    • An increase in synaptophysin protein levels in 30-day-old midbrain organoids exposed to RF-EMF indicates alterations in synaptic activity, though this effect was not consistent across all time points.
  3. Electrical Activity:
    • Due to methodological issues, comprehensive analysis of electrical activity in brain organoids could not be completed. However, preliminary findings suggested potential disruptions in electrical signaling pathways.

Implications for Public Health

The findings of this study highlight several critical concerns about the current EMF exposure guidelines. The observed alterations in neuronal differentiation and synaptic activity, even in the absence of overt morphological changes, suggest that RF-EMF exposure could have subtle yet significant effects on brain development and function. These effects are particularly concerning given the increasing ubiquity of 5G technology and the higher exposure levels associated with it.


The research conducted by Mevissen et al. underscores the urgent need for updated EMF exposure guidelines that account for non-thermal biological effects. The current standards, based largely on outdated research, do not adequately address the complexities of modern RF-EMF exposures. As such, there is a pressing need for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects and to develop comprehensive safety standards that protect public health.

Call to Action

Given the potential risks identified in this study, it is crucial for policymakers, researchers, and the public to advocate for more rigorous and up-to-date EMF exposure guidelines. Continued research is essential to fully understand the implications of RF-EMF exposure and to ensure that technological advancements do not come at the cost of human health.

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