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Summary and Analysis of the Study: The Exposure to 2.45 GHz Electromagnetic Radiation Induced Different Cell Responses in Neuron-like Cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells


With the increasing use of electronic devices, concerns about the public health impacts of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), particularly at 2.45 GHz (common in wireless communications), have escalated. This study by Bertuccio et al. at the University of Messina, focuses on understanding how 2.45 GHz EMR affects human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

Key Findings

  • Cell Viability and Mitochondrial Activity: Cell viability was significantly reduced after 24-48 hours of EMR exposure. The study observed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) in both SH-SY5Y cells and PBMCs.
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress: Alterations in the NAD+/NADH ratio, mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene transcript levels indicated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.
  • Apoptosis and Autophagy: The study also evaluated apoptosis and autophagy by examining B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) gene transcript levels.


  • Neuron-like Cells vs. PBMCs: Neuron-like cells were found to be more prone to oxidative stress than PBMCs, activating an early antioxidant defense response.
  • Health Risks: The findings suggest potential health risks associated with EMR exposure, especially concerning DNA damage and central nervous system alterations.
  • Facts:  Significant effects of RF exposure on ROS or genotoxic effects, this study indicates potential detrimental effects, thus adding to the complex and often conflicting field of EMR research.


This research contributes to the growing body of evidence indicating that EMR exposure, particularly at 2.45 GHz, can have adverse effects on human health. By demonstrating different responses in neuron-like cells and PBMCs, the study underscores the need for comprehensive research to understand the full scope of EMR’s impact on different cell types and the potential long-term implications for public health.


Study Source: 

Taken together, the current research results showed that 2.45 GHz EMR emitted from commonly used devices is capable of influencing both ROS production and mitochondrial imbalance, but it must be considered that these effects may vary based on the experimental parameters. In fact, they may depend on the time of exposure to electromagnetic fields and on the kind of cells used. Therefore, to protect individuals from the adverse effects of EMR exposure on the antioxidant potential of our cells, the use of such devices should be limited. Further investigations are necessary to better understand and confirm these observations, taking into account the complexity of the immune network and increasing the radiation exposure time.


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