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Effects of various electromagnetic fields (EMF) on melanoma and drug delivery

The document “Pathological impact and medical applications of electromagnetic field on melanoma A focused review” provides a comprehensive review of the effects of various electromagnetic fields (EMF) on melanoma. This includes different types of EMF, their specific influences on melanoma development, clinical therapies involving EMF, and the impact of EMF on drug uptake in melanoma treatment.


Effects of EMF on Melanoma

Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF)

  • Frequency Range: 1 Hz to 300 Hz.
  • Impact: Influences biological systems, with specific frequencies like 7.83 ± 0.3 Hz and 8-24 Hz shown to inhibit melanoma growth or restrict malignant cell proliferation【9】.


  • Characteristics: A frequency-modulated EMF pattern.
  • Impact: Reduces melanoma cell growth and promotes calcium absorption. It affects cell lines by altering cellular cAMP and stimulating ERK phosphorylation【10】.

50 Hz EMF

  • Impact: Increases the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 in melanoma cells, indicating a stress response to ELF exposure【11】.

60 Hz EMF

  • Impact: Enhances melanin secretion in melanoma cells, potentially inhibiting their growth【12】.

Low-Frequency Magnetic Field (LF-MF)

  • Impact: Generally inhibits melanoma cell growth. Specific fields like 1-5 nT and 1 mT have been used to inhibit tumor development or cell proliferation【13】.

Static Moderate Magnetic Field (SMF)

  • Impact: Various strengths (e.g., 217.3 ± 3.0 mT, 586 mT) have significant impacts on melanoma cell cultures and tumor development【14】.

Strong Electromagnetic Field

  • Example Frequency: 900 MHz.
  • Impact: Affects processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis in melanoma cells【15】.

Millimeter-Wave (30-300 GHz)

  • Impact: Induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells【16】.

Alternating Electromagnetic Field (AMF)

  • Application: Used in various applications, such as assessing apoptosis or altering cell electrical parameters in melanoma cells【17】【18】【19】【20】.

Magnetic Nanoparticles

  • Impact: Have a precise impact on melanoma development, with different types of nanoparticles showing various effects on melanoma cells and treatments【21】.

Influence of EMF on Drug Uptake

EMF affects cell polarity, thereby influencing drug uptake and effectiveness in melanoma treatment. This extends to drugs like 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and Camptothecin (CPT), with EMF enhancing the drugs’ intracellular access or anti-proliferative effects【22】【23】.

The study offers insightful and detailed information on how different EMFs affect melanoma, including growth, treatment response, and drug uptake. These findings suggest the potential of EMF as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of melanoma, demonstrating the diverse ways in which EMF can be employed for therapeutic benefits. This report underscores the need for further research and development in this field to harness the full potential of EMF in cancer treatment.

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